Eric Cheetham,"Fundementals of Mainstream Buddhism" (The Buddhist Society, 1994). See also MAJJHIMA NIKAYA: Ariya-pariyesana Sutra, M.26 at http://the-wanderling.com/mn_26.html. In the final paragraph of "THE TWELVE YEAR RULE" The Unimnifested SAT the following is presented:
Nothing external can serve as the sign of the sannyasi (Awakened One). He may roam throughout the world, he may hide himself in caves and jungles, and equally he may live in the midst of the multitude and even share in the world's work without losing his solitude. The unperceptive will never notice him; only the evamvid (the one who knows thus) will recognize him, since he too abides in the depth of the Self. However, anyone who is already in the slightest degree Awakened cannot fail to experience something of his radiance--a taste, a touch, a gleam of light--which only the interior sense can perceive, and which leaves behind it a truly wonderful impression.
See also: How To Recognize Enlightenment at http://the-wanderling.com/Recognize.html.
The following two sentences are found in the opening paragraphs:
"I knew nothing of the Absolute, Enlightenment, Zen, the Buddha, Buddhism, or Hinduism."
"First of all, I was not a seeker along the path. I didn't have the remotest idea there even WAS a path, let alone anything to seek."
Then, a paragraph or so later, remaining in the same theme, the following is presented:
"In my case, even though I didn't know it or what Enlightenment was at the time, I still recognized whatever it was in the man I met"
Not being familiar with Enlightenment was NOT totally the case. It is just that with my first encounter with that which is Enlightenment I was very young. In Stepmother I tell how after my real mother died I was sent to live with a couple that took me to the ashram of the Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi for a couple of months, a trip that ended with somewhat startling results for me. On return, the couple, thinking I had lost my mind or something because of a somewhat skewed perspective of things that I was exhibiting, dumped me off totally unannounced at my Grandmother's on my father's side in Pennsylvania --- a grandmother I had never met nor ever even heard of. From there I was returned to the west coast to be with my grandmother on my mother's side. The following, from Footnote  of THE MEETING: An Untold Story of Sri Ramana at http://the-wanderling.com/meeting.html, some two years later, offers a clarification:
"(I)nitially the incident as it transpired at the stage stop bore no specific relevance to any of the circumstances previously presented regarding Sri Ramana because WHO Sri Ramana was --- or that he even existed --- was an unknown to me at the time. That is to say, ON THE SURFACE the man in the doorway bore no significance being Sri Ramana because at that period in my life I knew nothing about him in my everyday thoughts one way or the other. It must be stated however, that other things were at work. Somewhere hidden deeply below the surface of my day-to-day Samsara mind-patterns was an unconsciously and unable-to-be-fully-grasped shadow-like footprint imprinted almost echo-like across a residual background-base of another state --- another state hidden from view behind a thickly drawn curtain of black.
That other state was set into motion by a Mara induced series of events beyond my control that included the unexpected (at least by me) death of my mother sometime around the time I started kindergarten. Being taken to India by a couple from another country without the approval or authorization of my father even before the death of my mother, albeit with the unintended privilege of meeting Sri Ramana Maharshi in the process. My return from India and death of my mother was followed almost immediately by the suicide of a dear and close relative from the blast of a shotgun he stuck in his mouth --- and of which, within minutes of the aftermath, I personally stumbled upon --- followed even more quickly by an auto accident wherein I was rendered unconscious and found wandering in the middle of the desert all alone. The cumulative effect of all those events on my child's mind initiated a two year-plus blackout period of any memory, a collapse of thought reaching from my mother's death forward to the end of that two year period. The blackout period, as I have chosen to call it, is elaborated more thoroughly in SRI RAMANA MAHARSHI: The Last American Darshan."
See H.H. The Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng at http://sped2work.tripod.com/huineng.html. See also Sutra Spoken by the Sixth Patriarch on the High Seat of "The Treasures of the Law"
It should be noted that when I was around 12 years of age my uncle introduced me to a man by the name of Franklin Merrell-Wolff, a person of deep spiritual Attainment. Unlike Hung-jen being aware of Hui Neng's Attainment from a fully Awakened perspective, my uncle's knowledge of Merrell-Wolff's Attainment arose solely from an intellectual viewpoint. However, for me, from either perspective, such was not the case. At the time of the meeting I had NO known on the surface knowledge or recognizable insight into such things. Of that meeting, in The Tree at http://the-wanderling.com/tree-tree.html, I write:
Merrell-Wolff took my hand and the the two of us walked slowly a few steps alone along an uneven rock strewn path, stopping only when we came upon a sweeping vista of the full extent of the mountains before us. Waving his hand in the air across the top of the peaks he told me there were trees on the mountains a thousand years old and in the sky above, stars millions of years old. He then said I was not yet twelve, nowhere near the age of the ancient trees or the stars, but we were ALL made of the samething with the same thought. It was as though someone had unexpectedly dumped a 55 gallon drum of ice cold water on me from behind. A feeling rushed over me if only for an instant but seemingly for an eternity, scaring me so much I ran back down the the rough, heavily strewn rocky path as fast as I thought I was able. However, my forward momentum was even faster --- as if I was gliding, my feet seemingly not making any real contact with the ground, almost as though the wind was carrying me and in the process I was part of the path as well --- into the arms of my uncle, all the while still shaking and shivering all over.
My uncle held me tight for the longest time, then stood up, shook Merrell-Wolff's hand, thanked him, and we headed back to the car. For hours on end everything seemed as though I was looking through a 3-D viewer, sounds carried a clarity I never remembered, and smells and odors waifted through my nostrils like never before --- I could even smell my own armpits. When we arrived at camp I was tired and wasted and fell asleep for what seemed like forever. When I awoke the sensations were gone.
D.T. Suzuki, "ZEN BUDDHISM: Selected writings of D.T. Suzuki" (Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956).
Kuei-shan Ling-yu at http://sped2work.tripod.com/kuei-shan.html. See also: Vulture Peak http://sped2work.tripod.com/vulturespeak.html
See: "Zen Enlightenment" at http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/awakening101/ZenEnlighten01.html
See footnote reference #16, below.
D.T. Suzuki, previously cited. As mentioned in the text above, the person I studied under originally studied under an Indian Maharshi. Even though later I studied under a Bodhidharma successor in the Japanese tradition of Zen, Samadhi, which is a big part of the Indian tradition stayed with me. Dogen emphasizes the need for deep meditative practice, D.T. Suzuki has a bias against sitting meditation in all of his writings, even though the word Zen translates into meditation. See also Meditation Sickness and Path to Enlightenment at http://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/med_sickness.html, as well as Samadhi at http://sped2work.tripod.com/samadhi.html.
In a quick added note, before the military my mentor arranged for me to study under the venerated Japanese Zen master Yasutani Hakuun Roshi. After the military my mentor opted for a middle road between his Indian side of things and that of Zen, sending me to do study-practice under the virtually unknown, fully Awakened "American Zen master," Alfred Pulyan. Inbetween Yasutani and Pulyan was a period of Doing Hard Time In A Zen Monastery.
In Zen Enlightenment (cited at footnote #7 above), recalling my Zen mentor's discription of his Enlightenment experience I write:
"There was no longer a just in front in front of him, but a penetrating all-around aroundness all around him...and a strange calmness he had never experienced before."
Roslyn Moore writes in her book Bursting Heart a similar analogy paralleling her own personal experience:
I see there is only one field. The idea that I am the part that is inside of this particular body and not the part that is outside this particular body is completely absurd. How silly to have attributed so much importance to the appearance of skin as a significant boundary. What difference can mere physical phenomena, like blood, tissue, organs, bones, make in this vast ocean of consciousness?
I search to find the boundary between in and out, the boundary between me and the silence, the boundary between me and other. There are no words. There is no time. I AM BOUNDARYLESS CONSCIOUSNESS. I am dissolving into waves of bliss. An ever expanding ripple. Vast. Orgasmic. Most exquisite. Most subtle.
Chiyono, No Water, No Moon:
This way and that way
I tried to keep the pail of water together,
hoping the weak bamboos
would never break
But suddenly the bottom fell out:
no more water
no more moon in the water
and emptiness in my hand!
It has been suggested in some quarters that the Awakening experience as I have presented of myself in the main text above, if reached at all, did NOT even surpass the Second Jhana state. If reached, they credit no more than the Second Jhana's Fourth Factor Sukkha combined possibly with the Third Factor, Piti --- more specifically Pharrana-piti at the most. The suggestion stemming primarily from my own words emphasizing bliss as found in the main text above:
"When the moon's pale-soft beams fell into my eyes unaware of my existance nor me of it, the light thereof poured on it's own down through my pupils and lightning like, a fist size feeling of something akin to bliss began to build and radiate, then blast throughout my body from somewhere in the pit of my stomach."
However, in the same paragraph, which is often overlooked by the same nay sayers, I present the following:
"(T)here transpired the barest whisper of a body shutter, like shaking off a chill, and in an orgasmic-blast of glowing dark light throughout my mind, body and the universe, suddenly I wasn't."
True, Sukkha and Piti and especially so Pharrana-piti are bliss and rapture factors in the Second Jhana. However, following quickly on the heels of the Fourth Factor is a Fifth Factor --- found clear through to the eighth of the Eight Jhana States --- called ekaggata, but most specifically so, found in its full manifestation in the final Four Jhanas. Ekaggata is 'one-pointedness of the mind.' When the mind experiences what is called one-pointedness and is in the state of Absorption, the mind slips over into the success of Appana-samadhi.
It is said that before the attainment of ekaggata, the mind will experience a sudden fall, as if, when stepping into the open door of an elevator expecting a floor to be in place, only to find one step too late nothing is there but an open shaft --- with nothing to grab on to either. Then will the mind reach one-pointedness. As in the poem above by Chiyono, "suddenly the bottom fell out, no more water, no more moon in the water, and emptiness in my hand!." Falling down an elevator shaft, the bottom of the pail fell out, and "suddenly I wasn't."
In a more indepth explanation, in an interview with Ram (James Swartz) conducted by John Howells in January 2003, at Tiruvannamalai, South India, Ram discusses bliss and the Awakening experience, meshing perfectly with my thesis:
"By understanding I mean the recognition that the subject, the mind/ego, the one experiencing the bliss, and the object, the bliss, are one. Bliss is a common word describing the Self. One way to describe this understanding experientially is that it is a shift during which the foreground, the ego, which has been experiencing the Self in the form of bliss becomes the background and the Self, which has been the object of experience, becomes the foreground, I. So now the "I" is the Self looking out at the ego looking "in" at it. And when this shift takes place there is an instant recognition that "I" is the Self. One's identification of "I" with the ego/mind ends once and for all. From that point on there is no foreground or background, no in or out. The mind is purified of these spiritual concepts."
Passing quickly or instantly through the Jhana stages is not always easy. However, in my case, it was more of a re-opening of previous full level Jhana experiences rather than attempting to open a permanently blocked access for the first time. Most of what happened was recapturing what happened in the presence of Sri Ramana Maharshi. See THE MEETING: An Untold Story of Sri Ramana at http://the-wanderling.com/meeting.html.
See also Ken-Chu-Shi at http://the-wanderling.com/five_ranks.html as well as JHANA FACTORS: Traditional Factors of the Eight Jhana States at http://the-wanderling.com/jhana_factors.html.
See KOAN: Chih-huang, Tai-yung, Samadhi at http://wanderling.tripod.com/tai_yung.html.
In a continuing comparison to the wave-particle analogy, Valerie Vener, in a conversation regarding her Awakening experience says:
The best way I can express that with words is to say that there is a stillness and then there's a wave and then there's a stillness and then there's a wave, and I am That which is the stillness and the wave. This sounds ridiculously intellectualized, but that's the best way I know how to say it. In motion, or in discussion, in love-making, or in shit-taking, or birth giving, or even in sitting at the bottom of the breath, just sitting and waiting for a breath to come in, I experience my being as the One who observes the waves, allows the waves, feels the waves and is the waves.
As far as conjuring up attempts with word-based metaphors about the Enlightenment experience, the following --- from a young boy who, within an hour of his face-to-face meeting with Sri Bhagavan his mental barriers were reduced to nothingness --- is offered from ADAM OSBORNE: Personal Remembrances:
In 1938 the movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released. There was a song in the movie called "Whistle While You Work," a song I remember quite well in that my mother sang (and whistled) it well into the time of her being sick. The year after Snow White was released The Wizard of Oz came out. Sometime after their release but before my trip to India, I saw both movies. Even though Osborne and I were both little kids and I may or may not have given him the title of either movie at the time as a kids, he remembered them as a grown man and the connections I made to them.
I only say so because I want you, the reader, to know that even though I do not remember at what time in my before going to India life I saw either movie specifically, that is, at what age or when --- mostly because seeing either of them must not have been tied to a memorable date like a birthday or something --- I did remember the song from Snow White and my mother singing it. So too, I remembered "The Wizard of Oz" well enough to tell Osborne something that stuck with him the rest of his life. Years later, as a young adult, it dawned on him out of nowhere one day when it popped into his head that his name Osborne and what happened to me turned out for me, to be a new life. I was Oz born. According to what he remembered, I had told him about "this movie" I had seen that in the beginning started out black and white, but when the little girl in it ended up in a magical land the world had turned into color. That was why I told him I did not want to leave --- because while there, in the ashram, for me, the world had turned into color.
I am not alone in drawing an analogy between Oz and Enlightenment. For example John Wren-Lewis, who, following a near death experience (NDE), Awakened to the Absolute. In his paper Dazzling Dark he writes:
"(W)hereas mystical awakening for me has been like Dorothy's in The Wizard of Oz: the realization that I never really left home and never could."
Continuing in the previous theme of conjuring up word-based metaphors, in the aforementioned Alfred Pulyan link (cited at footnote #9 above), regarding my first meeting with Pulyan's teacher, a fully Attained person in her own right, I write:
Several years before my mentor sent me to Pulyan's compound I found myself in the court of a Laotian warlord. I was requested to participate in, without many options to opt out or do otherwise, a ceremony that circled around the heavy use of opium. Dressed in local garb I layed on the floor on my side with a thin, three-foot long pipe, attended to by an ancient man that assisted me through the various paces. A couple of times afterwards, on my own and with others, I partcipated in a much less formal ritual called "chasing the dragon," but instead of a pipe, using a matchbox. That was ages ago. Those days, as well as any other such youthful indiscretions, are long gone and long over. The thing is, when the effects of the opium took over, it was like I had disappeared or no longer existed, having melded into the larger whole. Yet my eyes still took in, in a very high super-clear intensity, all of my surroundings. Where or what my eyes were connected to or how they were able to work or record my environment --- and for me to still know about it I don't know --- as there did not seem to be a back of my head or even a head.
Early on I can remember engulfed and removed from everything, but still looking down and seeing my toes barely sticking out of what seemed to be a wavering silver or mercury surface spreading out before me with a shimering reflection almost mirage-like with me somehow floating without weight or body. It was warm, embracing, enticing, and euphoric.
When I first met Pulyan's teacher that was the way it seemed to me. Warm, embracing, enticing, and euphoric --- with no back to my head and what there was of me, if there was a me, melded into the whole.
For more regarding Pulyan's mysterious fully Englightened female teacher see: Pulyan's Teacher.
In Zen Enlightenment (cited at footnote #7 above), speaking of my mentor in the beginning stages of my early study-practice, as preorgasmic-like ripples of proto-Enlightenment bubbled across my mind-canyons, I wrote:
The most elaborate subjects were always described in the most graphic, mind-visual metaphors somehow easily understood on my level of comprehension. His inner soul seemed to breath and undulate with an understanding that penetrated my brain, painting my mind in brilliant splotches of color, running thick with an embryo of knowledge and dripping heavy with meaning...all done with the quiet flair of a person whose thirst had long been quenched and whose only real want, if there even was a want, was to occasionally sip now and then when the need arose.
For additional insight to some of the above analogy concepts see STEPHEN HAWKING: Black Holes, Englightenment, and Zen
Attributed to one of 1700 Ch'an and Buddhism related kung-ans of the Ching-tech'uan teng-lu compiled during the Ching-te Era. The oldest and most influential of the "Transmission of the Lamp" (teng-lu) texts. Compiled by Tao-yuan of the line of Fa-yen Wen I (885-958). See Fear in Enlightenment and Zen at http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/awakening101/zen-fear.html. Carlos Castaneda in his book THE TEACHINGS OF DON JUAN: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge quotes the shaman-sorcerer Don Juan:
"The first enemy of a man of knowledge is Fear. A terrible
enemy--treacherous, and difficult to overcome. It remains
concealed at every turn of the way, prowling, waiting. And if
the man, terrified in its presence, runs away, his enemy will
have put an end to his quest. Once a man has vanquished fear,
he is free from it for the rest of his life because, instead of
fear, he has acquired clarity of mind which erases fear."
As for the sometimes controversial content in the sentence in the paragraph just prior to the quote on fear that reads:
"(E)ven though Awakened, my mind patterns must come across a ringing shadow-like footprint within a somehow residual imprinted echo-like background-base of that state. It is possible to wander from the Awakened state depending on the situation, bringing forth a lapse in detachment as it were, for various lengths, especially when dealing with trying people and an impatience with such people."
Some take issue with what is being suggested, especially in relation to Enlightenment. Sri Ramana's views regarding similar manifestations transpiring from his Awakened state have been recorded and interpreted for clarification by others, most notably through the works of Ed Fisher, J. Glenn Friesen, et al. See the Sahaja Samadhi section in Nirvikalpa Sahadhi and Sahaja Samadhi at http://the-wanderling.com/nirvakalpa.html.
Swami Ramdas, who I met personally in 1954, has written the following regarding parallel manifestations:
"In the earlier stages this vision was occasionally lost, pulling him (Ramdas) down to the old life of diversity with its turmoil of like and dislike, joy and grief. But he would be drawn in again into the silence and calmness of the spirit. A stage was soon reached when this dwelling in the spirit became a permanent and unvarying experience with no more failing off from it, and then the still more exalted state came on: his hither inner vision projected outwards. First a glimpse of this new vision dazzled him off and on. This was the working of divine love. He would feel as though his very soul had expanded like the blossoming of a flower and by a flash, as it were, enveloped the whole universe, embracing all in a subtle halo of love and light. This experience granted him a bliss infinitely greater than he had in the previous state. Now it was that Ramdas began to cry out, 'Ram is all. It is He as everybody and everything!' This condition was for some months coming on and vanishing. When it wore away, he would instinctively go into solitude. When it was present, he freely mixed in the world, preaching the glory of divine love and bliss."
John Wren-Lewis, found in Footnote  above, in relation to his Near Death Experience after eating poisoned candy on a bus in Thailand that led to his Enlightenment, describes his experience of the Void thus:
"I still slip back into that old
clouded state frequently, but this is not a process of "coming down." What happens is something I would have found
unbelievable had I heard of it second-hand namely, I again and again simply forget about the pearl of great price. I
drift off into all kinds of preoccupations, mostly trivial, and become my old self, cut off from the Void-Background.
Then, after a while, there begins to dawn on me a sense of something missing, at which point I recall the Void and
usually click back into the new consciousness almost immediately, with no effort at all."
The questioning of such fluctuations actually being able to transpire in the Enlightened state, as promulgated, for example, by the two adepts in their discussion found in ACTUALISM: Selected Correspondence, John Wren Lewis, wherein one of the two says:
"If one admits that the experience of John Wren-Lewis
was a "genuine enlightenment" then it does certainly seem to be an exception.
Of course, the wavering quality, its here now, gone now quality might lead some to disqualify it as genuine."
The second individual asks:
"Why would you say 'if one admits' when John Wren-Lewis himself admits that he still slips 'back into that old clouded state frequently?' Do you have a different definition of enlightenment than that of a 'permanent' altered state of consciousness, a *permanent* transcendence of the ego?"
He then goes on to say:
"I would certainly disqualify his experience as genuine enlightenment, but I
have come across a lot of people, particularly of the Advaita/Non-Dualistic persuasion who have a vested interest in
watering down genuine enlightenment into varying states of "self-realization whereas all genuinely enlightened beings point to a single edifying moment of awakening (with a variety of descriptions)."
As to having --- or there being --- a different definition of Enlightenment than that of a permanent altered state of consciousness or a permanent transcendence of the ego I would suggest from an Enlightened state there is neither permanence nor non-permanence. As Zen master Tai-yung has stated of Samadhi, if you are not conscious of either condition, this is abiding in the Eternal. There can be neither entering into a nor rising out of it. From the Samsara side looking in Enlightenment seems as though it should be permanent, when in reality there is neither permanence nor non-permanence. That is to say, from the Samsara side, in that Enlightenment appears permanent one could not "come in and out," i.e., stuck there forever. However, in that there is neither permanence nor non-permanence there would be no hindrance to such an action.
For more on the potential concept of going in and out while residing in the Awakened state, Swami Chidananda in THE PHILOSOPHY, PSYCHOLOGY AND PRACTICE OF YOGA, Chapter 16 presents the following:
"When one reaches the level of Asamprajnata Samadhi or Nirvikalpa Samadhi, sometimes the Yogi goes on practising such a state until he becomes so much established in that state of consciousness that even when he comes back into the waking state, down from the deep inward state, where he is not aware of the body or the time or the surroundings, even when he comes back into the normal state, his awareness continues to be qualified by the same state of non-duality. In other words, he is so much established in that state of spiritual consciousness or awareness that even while he is moving and acting, he still remains in that state of inner awareness, and they call this the state of Sahaja Samadhi. Sahaja means natural. So, in Sahaja Samadhi, the state of non-dual consciousness becomes to the Yogi his natural state, and not a state which he tries hard to reach and then reaches only to come back to the waking state after a while. Rather, the state of non-dual consciousness becomes normal to him."
The best place to easily obtain writings by Nagarjuna is from Nagarjuna at: http://sped2work.tripod.com/nagarjuna_2.html and attending links. See also the All Things Zen website at: http://members.tripod.com/SpEd2work/AllThingsZen.html. In addition to the traditional historical masters cited, there are Roslyn Moore and Valerie Vener cited above, but so too should be Suzanne Segal, a woman of the moderen era that experienced Enlightenment and interesting enough, similar to my comments on my Zen mentor's non-willingness to to drive a car and my lack of understanding thereof at the time, writes:
"I suddenly became aware that I was driving through myself. For years there had been no self at all, yet here on this road, everything was myself, and I was driving through me to arrive where I already was. In essence, I was going nowhere because I was everywhere already. The infinite emptiness I new myself to be was now apparent as the infinite substance of everything I saw."
There is an extensive four volume, English translation set of the "Shobogenzo" by Dogen written following his Enlightenment-event published by Windbell Publications.
See: Arthur Osborne, "Ramana Maharshi and the Path of Self-Knowledge" (Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1995); David Godman, "Be As You Are: The Teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi" (Arkana Penguin Books, 1985); "The Spiritual Teaching of Ramana Maharshi" (Shambhala Dragon Editions, 1988). For more information regarding all three books see Suggested Reading at http://wanderling.tripod.com/ramana.html. See also: Sri Ramana Maharshi at http://the-wanderling.com/ramana.html. For more insight into the Wanderling and a childhood connection with the son of the author of the above suggested Sri Ramana book, please see Adam Osborne at http://the-wanderling.com/osborne02.html.
Master Nan Huai-Chin, Working Toward Enlightenment (Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1993). See also: HUI-K'O: The Second Patriarch of Zen at http://the-wanderling.com/hui_ko.html. See as well: Paris and the Art of Enlightenment at http://the-wanderling.com/hilton.html.
One summer day Dogen Zenji encountered the old monk drying mushrooms in the scorching heat with his back bent in old age. He looked in pain. Dogen ran up to him and said," Venerable monk, it is a pity that you should do this. Allow me to call a younger monk to do the work." But the old monk's Bodaishin was still strong. He resolutely glared at Dogen saying:
"Others are not me. I heard that you came to China for the purpose of the Great Way. You should thoroughly investigate the Self. The moment you looked at me you were already looking the other way delusioning yourself. Losing sight of oneself by worrying about others is foolish. You don't understand the significance of seeing. Without engaging the Self, just look. That is what shugyo is. You can't see that I am simply doing this, so don't say foolish things. Another person's practice is their own business." From RESOLVING THE MIND: Buddha's Enlightenment, Page Three, at http://sped2work.tripod.com/resolve.html
Yatri, "UNKNOWN MAN: The Mysterious Birth of a New Species," (Sidgwick & Jackson, 1988). See also DEATH OF THE EGO: A Buddhist View.
See also Kali-Ma.
Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, "I AM THAT: Talks With Sri Nisargadatta," (Acorn Press, 1990) ISBN: 0893860220.
TURIYATITA: Chidakasa In Cosmic Consciousness at http://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/chidakasa.html
THE WORD OBEAH: What Does It Mean, How Does It Work? at http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/awakening101/obeah2.html